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Friday Seminar

The Cosmology Lunch Seminar are scheduled on Fridays from 12:00pm-1:00pm.

Barry Goldwater Building, 5th floor, Conference Room 505


DateSpeakerInstitutionHostTitle Time Abstract
01/24/2020 Timothy CarletonUniversity of MissouriDr. WindhorstThe Origin of Ultra-Diffuse GalaxiesEver since the identification of a large population of Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) in the Coma Cluster, there has been renewed interest in the properties of low-surface brightness galaxies. Evidence from the abundance and morphologies of UDGs suggest that cluster environments play an important role in the evolution of these unique systems. Motivated by this evidence, I will present a model for the formation of UDGs through tidal heating of dwarf-elliptical galaxies in clusters. This model is able to reproduce many aspects of the observed UDG population, including the size distribution and the dependence of UDG abundance with cluster mass, assuming that UDGs fall into the cluster living in cored dark matter halos. However, this picture becomes more complicated when considering low-surface brightness galaxies in the field and high-surface brightness galaxies in clusters. I will discuss how observations of dynamics, stellar populations, and globular cluster systems of Ultra-Diffuse and non-Ultra Diffuse galaxies in clusters and the field can inform a more holistic understanding of dwarf galaxy structural evolution.
02/14/2020Mainak Mukhopadhyay ASURolling with Quantum FieldsIn cosmic inflation the quantum fluctuations of the inflaton are thought to break translational symmetry. Here we study the simpler problem of a classical rolling homogeneous field bi-quadratically coupled to a quantum field. We explicitly solve the problem using the newly developed classical-quantum correspondence, in which the dynamics of a quantum variable is seen to be equivalent to that of a complexified classical variable. We find that homogeneous initial conditions evolve homogeneously such that the quantum dynamics does not break translational invariance, contrary to the common lore of cosmic inflation.
02/21/2020Ayush SaurabhASUThe decay of global cosmic string loops. "I will be talking about our latest work on the decay of global cosmic string loops due to radiation of Goldstone bosons and massive scalar (χ) particles. This is relevant to models in which axions are proposed as a means to solve the strong CP problem."
02/28/2020Tucker MantonASU Horizons of Kerr and non-singular black holes: the view from the double copyThe double copy program has provided a robust way to understand and calculate graviton scattering amplitudes in terms of simpler gauge theory amplitudes, both at tree and loop level. The classical double copy, on the other hand, is a duality between exact solutions in gauge theories and exact solutions in general relativity, although exactly why the duality holds non-perturbatively remains somewhat elusive. In this work, we study the radial electric fields obtained through the double copy mapping in both static and stationary black hole spacetimes. We show that for spacetimes with two or more horizons, the radial electric field undergoes a sign change on a hypersphere located between horizons. We discuss possible interpretations of this phenomena in addition to a few other intriguing aspects of the classical double copy for static black holes.
03/06/2020Andrew SveskoASUExtended Thermodynamics and Entanglement of Hairy Black HolesAfter a broad review of black hole thermodynamics and holographic entanglement, I will discuss how we can analytically study phase transitions of Renyi entropy and its generalization. Specifically, I will show that the phase transition of a hyperbolic AdS black hole to a neutral charged dilatonic black hole is dual, in the holographic sense, to the phase transition of the Renyi entropy of a vacuum state of a conformal field theory reduced to a ball in Minkowski space. Motivated by extended thermodynamics of black holes, I will also present the holographic phase transitions of a generalized Renyi entropy and discuss its gravitational interpretation.
03/27/2020 Seminar cancelled
04/03/2020 Seminar cancelled
06/12/2020George ZahariadeASUQuantum Mechanics of Gravitational Waves1:00 PMIn this informal talk I will discuss recent work done with Maulik Parikh and Frank Wilczek, where we study the effect of a quantized gravitational wave on a model gravitational wave detector, more precisely one arm of a gravitational wave interferometer. We find that the arm-length is subject to a stochastic tidal force whose properties depend on the exact quantum state of the gravitational field. This should appear in the signal as an additional noise source.

FALL 2019

DateSpeakerInstitution Title Abstract
9/13/2019Akash MishraIITSome Aspects of Higher Curvature GravityAlthough General Relativity(GR) is a tremendously successful theory at macroscopic length scale, it suffers non-renormalizable UV divergence when one attempts to quantize it, suggesting that GR is not complete. Hence, such a theory can only make sense as an effective field theory of a more general theory which must contain higher derivative correction over the Einstein Hilbert action. This motivates one to study these effective higher curvature corrections to GR, and in this talk, I'll illustrate some implications of these terms. In particular, I'll discuss how one can put constraints on these corrections from the Gravitational Wave observations. Also, I'll discuss the problem of Strong Cosmic Censorship in the context of higher curvature gravity.
9/20/2019Carlos CardonaASUOPE inversion, light cone bootstrap and large spin perturbation theoryI would like to discuss some recent developments on the conformal bootstrap program for extracting OPE conformal field theory data by means of S-matrix techniques. I will discuss the OPE inversion formula and its applications to large spin perturbation theory within the light-cone bootstrap approach.
10/4/2019Mustafa AminRiceNon-perturbative Dynamics of Cosmological FieldsIn this informal talk, I will touch briefly upon three topics: 1. The production of gravitational waves from ultra-compact soliton collisions 2. The stochastic production of particles during and after inflation (and a novel connection to Anderson localization) 3. A connection between fine tuning of the Higgs potential and production of gravitational waves in the early universe Time permitting (or if there is interest), I can also talk about our recent efforts to resolve the “Hubble Tension”.
10/11/2019Thiago FleuryFederal University of Rio Grande do NorteCorrelation Functions in N=4 SYM and IntegrabilityIn this set of three lectures, I will explain a method for computing correlation functions in N=4 Super-Yang-Mills using integrability. The method consist in decomposing the correlators into integrable form-factors and it is nonperturbative. The first lecture will contain a brief review of N=4 SYM and the hexagon form-factor will be introduced. The process of gluing hexagons together will also be described. If time permits, the fishnets theories which are deformations of N=4 SYM wiil also be described. In the second lecture, I will compute some examples of correlations functions and discuss the multi-particle process. The third lecture will contain nonplanar corrections and a list of open problems and recent results.
10/18/2019Thiago FleuryFederal University of Rio Grande do NorteCorrelation Functions in N=4 SYM and IntegrabilityThe third lecture will contain nonplanar corrections and a list of open problems and recent results.
10/25/2019 Nikhil Monga ASUFrom Navier Stokes to Maxwell: A look at the fluid-gravity duality under the lens of the double copy.Work done by Bredberg et. al. 2011 showed that for certain algebraically special metrics it was possible to obtain the incompressible Navier Stokes equations. They show that satisfying Einstein's equations for these metrics is equivalent to obtaining the incompressible Navier Stokes equations. Monteiro et. al. 2014 showed that for metrics which can be written in the Kerr-Schild form. We extend the fluid-gravity picture by combining these ideas, in particular by using the Weyl double copy (Luna et. al. 2018). We observe for algebraically special type D spacetimes, the Maxwell field strength tensor is proportional to the vorticity of the fluid. In the limit that we produce only magnetic fields. Further we show that E.B is proportional to the enstrophy density. These parallels are strongly suggestive of a fluid-gauge duality for such metrics.
11/1/2019Cecilia LunardiniASUneutrinos from primordial black holes In this very informal talk, I will discuss how the evaporation of primordial black holes depends on the neutrinos being massive particles. The effect of the neutrino mass on the black hole lifetime, and new constraints on the abundance of primordial black holes will be presented. The futuristic possibility to directly detect neutrinos from primordial black holes will be highlighted briefly.
11/08/2019Alex van EngelenASUTwo topics for upcoming CMB experiments: one opportunity and one concernI will highlight two topics relevant for upcoming surveys of the cosmic microwave background ( CMB ) . First, I will give some good news: I will explain a cosmological signal that was recently found to be detectable, the thermal-kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. Although this signal is much weaker than the better-known thermal and kinetic SZ effects, it has some advantages over these two effects. I will then switch gears and give some less-than-good news: I'll discuss a concern for the measurements of the gravitational lensing of the CMB to measure the mass of neutrinos. I will discuss how these measurements were recently found to be significantly affected by astrophysical uncertainties relating to baryonic feedback from active galactic nuclei and supernovae.
11/22/2019Levon PogosianSimon FraserCosmological Tests of GravityI will discuss two aspects of testing models of dark energy and modified gravity using cosmological datasets. The first is the choice of priors when trying to constrain general functions of redshift. The second is the physical interpretation of such tests and their implications for particular types of theories.
12/6/2019Brandon ThorntonASUToward Gluon Scattering Amplitudes through Wilson Loops: A CalculationI describe a calculation of polygonal Wilson Loop expectation values which contain information about next-to-maximal-helicity-violating gluon scattering amplitudes in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills at tree level, through a (Wilson loop)-(scattering amplitude) duality. Such calculations are part of a larger effort to obtain nonperturbative gluon amplitudes (i.e., amplitudes at all orders in their coupling) in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills.

Spring 2019

Date SpeakerInstitutionTitle Abstract
2/1/2019Joseph LesnefskyASUGeodesic completenessUnderstanding the geometric constraints required for geodesic completeness
2/8/2019Victoria MartinASU Connecting quasinormal modes and heat kernels We connect two different approaches for calculating functional determinants on quotients of hyperbolic spacetime: the heat kernel method and the quasinormal mode method. For the example of a rotating BTZ background, we show how the image sum in the heat kernel method builds up the logarithms in the quasinormal mode method, while the thermal sum in the quasinormal mode method builds up the integrand of the heat kernel. More formally, we demonstrate how the heat kernel and quasinormal mode methods are linked via the Selberg zeta function. We show that a 1-loop partition function computed using the heat kernel method may be cast as a Selberg zeta function whose zeros encode quasinormal modes. We discuss how our work may be used to predict quasinormal modes on more complicated spacetimes
2/15/2019Southwest Strings MeetingASU Website: https://southweststringsme.wixsite.com/2019
2/22/2019Andy SveskoASUHamiltonian Analysis of Vacuum Energy SequesteringI carry out the Hamiltonian analysis of the local vacuum energy sequestering model -- a manifestly local and diffeomorphism invariant extension of general relativity which has been shown to remove the radiatively unstable contribution to the vacuum energy generated by matter loops. I will show that the degravitation of this UV sensitive quantity is enforced via global relations that are a consequence of the model’s peculiar constraint structure.
3/1/2019Ayush SaurabhASUDecay of Cosmic String Loops Due to Particle Radiation.Constraints on the tension and the abundance of cosmic strings depend crucially on rate at which they decay into particles and gravitational radiation. I will talk about our study of the decay of cosmic string loops in the Abelian-Higgs model. We have found that the half-life of a loop is proportional to L^2, where L is the length of the loop. Since the half-life due to gravitational wave emission scales in proportion to L, we conclude that particle emission is the primary energy loss mechanism for smaller loops, while gravitational emission dominates for loops larger than a certain transition length that is inversely proportional to the string tension. Implications of these results for observational bounds on cosmic strings will be discussed.
3/8/2019Latham BoylePerimeter InstituteCPT-Symmetric UniverseI will introduce our recent proposal that the state of the universe does *not* spontaneously violate CPT. Instead, the universe after the big bang is the CPT image of the universe before it, both classically and quantum mechanically. The pre- and post-bang epochs comprise a universe/anti-universe pair, emerging from nothing directly into a hot, radiation-dominated era. CPT symmetry selects a unique QFT vacuum state on such a spacetime, providing a new interpretation of the cosmological baryon asymmetry, as well as a remarkably economical explanation for the cosmological dark matter. Requiring only the standard three-generation model of particle physics (with right-handed neutrinos), a Z_2 symmetry suffices to render one of the right-handed neutrinos stable. We calculate its abundance from first principles: matching the observed dark matter density requires its mass to be 4.8 x 10^{8} GeV. Several other testable predictions follow: (i) the three light neutrinos are Majorana and allow neutrinoless double beta decay; (ii) the lightest neutrino is massless; and (iii) there are no primordial long-wavelength gravitational waves. The proposal also has interesting things to say about the strong CP problem and the observed electrodynamic arrow of time.
3/16/2019Logan ThomasASUCosmological Correlation Functions and Conformal Field TheoryIn this talk, we will review the in-in formalism for calculating correlation functions in cosmology. Then, within the context of conformal field theory, we will discuss the analytic continuation of correlators from Euclidean to Lorentzian time.
3/22/2019Jonathan LunineCornellThe search for life in the Ocean Worlds of the solar system. Please Note this talk will be @ ISTB4 ROOM 240The ocean worlds of the solar system include the Earth, and outer solar system bodies known or suspected to have liquid water in their interiors. Those for which the evidence is very strong are Jupiter’s moon Europa, and Saturn’s moons Enceladus and Titan. Our knowledge of each differs, and it is Enceladus for which we have remarkably detailed evidence about the interior ocean thanks to a plume of gas, ice and dust that emanates from the interior. The search for evidence of life can begin there, while for Europa additional information is needed from the upcoming Europa Clipper mission. And for Titan, the enigmatic methane seas provide a chance to look for biology based on a different chemical toolkit than that for water-based life.
4/5/2019Zidu LinASUDetectability of neutrinos from binary compact-object mergersIn this work, we propose a long-term strategy for detecting neutrinos from the remnant of binary compact-object mergers with a future M-ton water-Cherenkov detector such as Hyper-Kamiokande. Neutrino luminosity and average energy from the merger remnant are extracted from several state-of-the-art binary merger simulations and are applied to our estimation of signal events on a M-ton water detector on the Earth. By using the timing information from gravitational-wave detector, we only focus on Δt≈1s after each merger. The neutrino backgrounds from other sources will then be greatly reduced and the probability to detect statistically significant neutrino signals from mergers increases. The central remnant of a binary merger is not well-determined given initial binary parameters. It can immediately collapse to a black hole, or evolve to a hyper massive neutron star, or even evolve to a stable massive neutron star. We consider all these 3 possibilities and calculate the corresponding neutrino signal events on a Cherenkov detector. The main goal of this project is to study under which scenario the binary mergers will give us unambiguous neutrino signals on a M-ton scale water detector. If the neutrino signals from mergers can be observed, we will have a better chance to understand the mechanism of binary mergers, the production of short gamma ray burst, as well as heavy element nucleosynthesis.
4/19/2019Tucker MantonASUGradient instabilities of cosmological time crystals and their cure from effective field theory.The effective field theory (EFT) of Dark Energy provides a novel environment in which to study stability aspects of scalar fields in an expanding Friedmann universe. Focusing on four dimensions, the EFT is carried out on three dimensional hypersurfaces defined by constant scalar field. This explicitly breaks time diffeomorphism invariance and has the effective of moving the scalar degree of freedom out of the matter field and into the metric. Crucially, this process leaves the background equations unaffected, allowing for a systematic study of the metric perturbations. The EFT operators have a significant effect on the propagation speed (or sound speed) of the scalar perturbations. We apply these operators to scalar fields that exhibit oscillatory dynamics in their lowest energy states. Such fields are cosmological realizations of time crystals, and generally suffer from instabilities stemming from cycles where the sound speed becomes imaginary. This is referred to as a gradient instability, and we show how the EFT operators serve to correct the instability, providing the first example of stable cosmological time crystals in the literature.
4/26/2019Eric PerlmutterCal TechRegge Trajectories in Conformal Field Theory and Bound States in 3D Quantum GravityI will describe some aspects of the structure of operator spectra and correlations in conformal field theories, and their holographic interpretation in quantum gravity. This will include a formula for the gravitational binding energy of multi-particle states in 3D AdS quantum gravity at finite Newton's constant, which has a precise interpretation in two-dimensional conformal field theories. Our results employ modern methods of the conformal bootstrap.
5/3/2019Yasha ShnirTrinity College DublinSpinning black holes with Skyrme hairHere the scalar hairs represent topologically trivial clouds surrounding rotating black hole, they are counterparts of the "cloudy" black holes in the Einstein-Klein-Gordon theory, that trivialise both in the absence of a black hole and in the at flat space limit. We found that the spinning axially symmetric cloudy solutions of the O(3) sigma model also exist in the regular asymptotically flat space-time without the event horizon. These congurations are similar to the usual rotating boson stars, which, in the at flat space limit are linked to the axially symmetric Q-balls, in both cases the solutions exist for some restricted range of values of the angular frequency and possess a quantized angular momentum. However, unlike boson stars in the model with sextic potential, the O(3) scalar clouds do not posses a at space limit. We show that, depending on the values of the parameters of the model and the Hawking temperature, the branch structure of the cloudy solutions varies from the usual inspirraling pattern, which is typical for the boson stars, to the two branch structure, similar to that of the black holes with Skyrme hairs